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couv Uko Paul Kagame yatanze abatutsi ho ibitambo"Intambara imaze gutera, inzego zishinzwe ububanyi n'amahanga bw'u Rwanda bwagumye gukora nk'indeberezi. Icyakora Perezida wa Repubulika yirukanse hirya no hino, ni byo koko, biranamuhira yitabaza u Bufaransa, u Bbiligi, na Zayire. Icyavuyemo ni uko ibyo bihugu uko ari bitatu byakiye neza icyifuzo cya guverinoma y'u Rwanda cyo kurutiza ingabo. Ingabo z'Abafaransa n'iz'Ababiligi zari zishinzwe kurinda abakomoka mu Burayi na Amerika no kubahungisha bibaye ngombwa, mu gihe ingabo za Zayire zo zashobora guhita zoherezwa ku rugamba. Nubwo ntawabuze kunegura imyitwarire y'abakomando bo muri Zayire, ntawarenga ku kuri ngo ahakane ko bateye ingabo za FAR akanyabugabo ku buryo budasubirwaho, bagatsimbura batyo inyeshyamba mu birindiro byazo bikomeye.

 

Icyakora nkuko byagaragaye mu ntambara, abari bafite ijambo mu bakomeye bageze aho barekura igihugu cyacu. Intagondwa zo mu butegetsi zasubizanye agasuzuguro zibajijwe iby'amashusho ateye isoni y'imfungwa zari zuzuye muri sitade. Bahinduka batyo ibyitso bya FPR batabishaka, dore ko yuririraga kuri bene ayo mafuti igasya itanzitse, kandi ikabikorana ubuhanga bwihariye. Vuba na bwangu, imiryango mpuzamahanga itabogamiye kuri Leta yamaganye uburyo imfungwa za politiki zafatwaga nabi mu Rwanda. Uburenganzira bw'ikiremwamuntu bubera ikibazo gikomeye ubutegetsi bw'u Rwanda. Mu bihe nk'ibyo by'amakimbirane, gusaba ko abantu bakorana  ubushishozi kandi bakagerageza kubahiriza ikiremwamuntu byahise byitwa ubugambanyi. Mu gihe cy'imyaka ine intambara yamaze, abategetsi b'igihugu bakoze amakosa menshi yo kudashishoza yakururiye igihugu cyacu ingorane zikomeye. Igihunga, ubwoba bw'umwanzi n'uburangare bw'abanyepolitiki bari ku butegetsi ntibihagije mu gusobanura akaga bakururiye u Rwanda. Ikibazo cy'imfungwa zirundanyije muri sitade cyatumye itangazamakuru ry'amahanga rihitamo urundi ruhande. Maze barekera aho kuvuga imirwano imara abantu yaberaga mu majyaruguru y'igihugu, n'inkunga Yoweri Museveni yateraga inyeshyamba. Amakuru asigara yibanda ku burenganzira bw'ikiremwamuntu, ku byo gufunga abantu nta mpamvu, no kwica abaturage b'inzirakarengane. Nibwo abanyamakuru baguye mu mutego w'ibinyoma bya FPR batangiye kuvuga ku mugaragaro ikibazo cy'ubutegetsi bitaga ubwigitugu bunamena amaraso. Icyuho kiba kirabonetse, FPR iba icyicotsemo yicinya icyara. Inyeshyamba zitangira kwamagana ibihugu byohereje ingabo mu Rwanda. U Bubiligi bushya ubwoba buhitamo gutahura aba parakomando no guhagarika kwohereza intwaro mu Rwanda. Naho u Bufaransa, nubwo bwarekeye mu gihugu amakompanyi abiri y'ingabo zirwanira mu mahanga, busaba abagikomoka kuva mu Rwanda kubera ikibazo cy'umutekano gishobora kubabangamira. Abenshi bafata utwangushye, ariko abandi baguma aho, bumva ko ingabo zifashe neza ku rugamba.

 

Itahurwa ry'ingabo z'Ababiligi zagize ingaruka mbi nyinshi. Mu rwego rw'umubano hagti y'ibihugu byombi, iryo tahurwa ry'ingabo ratumye icyizere hagati y'u Rwanda n'u Bubiligi gitakara. Umwami Baudouin asaba akomeje guverinoma y'u Bubiligi gusubukura ubufatanye mu rwego rwa gisirikari bafasha u Rwanda, ariko biranga biba iby'ubusa. Ahubwo mu gihe bamwe mu Bahutu baregaga Ababiligi ubugambanyi, FPR yo yaboneyeho gushimangira ibirindiro byayo i Buruseli yifashishije ishyaka rishyigikiye ry'abavuga igifaransa, ryari rifite umuvugizi wa FPR ukomeye cyane witwaga Jean Gol. Ababiligi bacuruza intwaro bahise bafata iya mbere mu kuziba icyo cyuho, batangira koherereza intwaro inyeshyamba. Mu by'ukuri, icyo bakaga umwe bagihaga undi.

 

Indi ngaruka yatewe n'icyurwa ry'abasirikari b'Ababiligi ni uko u Bufaransa bwasigaye mu guhugu bwonyine bituma uruhare rwabwo mu ntambara rwiyongera. Ariko aho itahuka ry'Ababiligi ryagize ingaruka mbi ni mu rwego mpuzamahanga. Batangiye kwemeza nta shiti ko kuba Ababiligi bazi neza u Rwanda kurusha ibindi bihugu bahisemo gukuramo akabo karenge ari igihamya ko mu by'ukuri ingoma ya Perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana idakwiriye gutabarwa, bityo, u Bufaransa bukaba nta mpamvu bufite yo kuharekera amakompanyi yabwo abiri.

Nkuko bigaragara, uwo ayo makosa y'ubutegetsi bw'i Kigali bwunguye ni FPR. Icya mbere ni uko   Abanyarwanda benshi, baba Abatutsi  cyangwa Abahutu, bafashwe mu byitso ku itariki ya 4 no ku ya 5 Ukwakira, bumvaga bahuje umugambi na FPR kuko yabavugiraga. Icya kabiri ni uko habaye  ihohotera rikabije ry'uburenganzira bw'ikiremwamuntu, imbere ya za kamera za televiziyo,  bigahindura imyumvire y'amahanga. Bityo bamwe muri abo banyamahanga bagasanga intambara yo mu Rwanda yari ifite ishingiro  kuko babonaga ikorwa n'abaturage bakandamijwe n'ubutegetsi bw'igitugu.

 

Ikindi gitangaje cyaranze intambara ni uburangare bukabije ku ruhande rwa, mu gihe inyeshyamba zo zaranzwe n'uburyarya. Guverinoma yemeye kwakira ibinyamakuru n'imiryango itegamiye kuri leta, imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu yacengewe na FPR (urugero ni Jean Carbonare) yemerewe gusura za gereza z'igihugu nta nkomyi. Nyamara abanyamakuru bakumirwa kwinjira mu gice cyigaruriwe n'inyeshyamaba, hemererwa gusa ababogamiye kuri FPR. Bityo inyeshyamba zishobora kwica abaturage b'inzirakarengane zikabajugunya byobo bya rusange ntacyo zishisha. Ni kuri ubwo buryo abantu ibihumbi n'ibihumbi bishwe na FPR mu ma perefegitura ya Byumba na Ruhengeri guhera mu Ukwakira 1990. Ariko se hari uwigeze abivuga? Ibyo byatewe n'imimerere y'abari bahanganye. Guverinoma iba igengwa n'itegeko mpuzamahanga, naho inyeshyamba zikigenga. Birababaje kuba urukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho guca imanza z'ibyaha byakozwe mu Rwanda rutarashoboye kwagura uburenganzira bwarwo mu gushakisha no guhana ibyaha by'ubwicanyi byakozwe na FPR kuva mu Ukwakira 1990.

 

Inyandikomvugo y'imfabusa

 

Aho nakoreraga muri ambasade Addis-Abeba, nabonaga igitutu mpuzamahanga cyava muri OUA no mu Nama y'Umuryango w'Abibumbye Ishinjwe amahoro ku isi ari cyo cyonine cyashoboraga kumvisha ukuri Perezida wa Uganda wasuzuguraga ku mugaragaro ibyakorerwaga mu karere. Mu nyandikomvugo noherereje Minisiteri y'Ububanyi n'Amahanga ku itariki ya 8 Ukwakira 1990, nabagiriye inama yo gusaba ko hatumizwa inama idasanzwe ya OUA cyangwa se nibura inama yo mu rwego ruciriritse. Bwari kuba ari uburyo bwo kureba uko uyoboye uwo muryango ahagaraye. Maze kujya inama na mugenzi wanjye w'i New York, muri iyo nyandikomvugo nasabye gushyikiriza ikibazo Inama y'Umuryango w'Abibumbye ishinzwe amahoro ku isi. Kigali yarangaranye icyifuzo cyanjye, kimwe n'inyandiko nyinshi za mugenzi wanjye nyakwigendera amabasaderi Rukashaza Oswalidi wari uhagarariye igihugu mu Muryango w'Abibumbye. Byaduteye kwibaza niba ububanyi n'amahanga bw'u Rwanda bwari bukigira umuyobozi. Impamvu nyazo z'uko kwinumira zari zihishe ahandi.

 

Igitutu cy'Abanyafurika

 

Kuva intambara igitangira, Perezida Yoweri Museveni yavuganye n'abakuru b'ibihugu bya Afurika hafi ya bose abasobanurira uko we yabonaga ibintu. Abumvisha ko hagomba haboneka igisubizo cyumvikanyweho mu karere, ni ukuvuga igisubizo gitanzwe n'Abanyafurika ubwabo. Ibihugu by'Afurika byinshi ni icyo gisubizo cya «Perezida wabo» zahitamo. Hakurikijwe amabwiriza y'ibihugu byabo, abaserukira Afurika i New York bimirije imbere inzira y'igisubizo gitanzwe n'Abanyafurika, ariko bemera ko yo ubwayo itihagije.

 

Iterabwoba no guteza ubwega kwa Museveni

 

Mu byo yatangazaga byose ku Rwanda, umukuru w'igihugu cya Uganda ntiyigeze ahwema kumvisha abantu ko ikibazo cy'u Rwanda kireba igihugu ubwacyo. Nubwo yemeye gutanga inkunga mu gushakira icyo umuti ikibazo binyuze mu nzira z'amahoro, yumvishije guverinoma y'u Rwanda ko kugerageza gushyira mu majwi Uganda bizafatwa nko kuyishakaho intambara.Yoweri Museveni yahoraga atumiza amabasaderi w'u Rwanda ku cyicaro cye kugira ngo abimusubiriremo. Iryo terabwoba riziguye ryagize ingaruka zo kujijisha no gucecekesha ubushobozi bwa guverinoma y'u Rwanda. Kubera gutinya kurakaza umuturanyi, Perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana yatanze amabwiriza yo kutarega Uganda ku mugaragaro.

Nkiri Addis Abeba aho nakoreraga kugeza mu mpera z'Ukwakira 1990, nakiranye ipfunwe iyo nkuru, kuko ku itariki ya 22 Ukwakira 1990, nasabye umujyanama wanjye wa mbere amabwiriza yo gutangaza inyandikomvugo igaragaza uruhare rwa Uganda n'urwa Perezida Yoweri Museveni by'umwihariko ku ntambara yo Rwanda. Nanone ntirengagije uburenganzira n'ibyifuzo by'impunzi byari bifite ishingiro mu gihe zasabaga gutaha mu gihugu cyabo nta yandi mananiza, sinashoboraga kubabarira Perezida Yoweri Museveni ibinyoma bye, kuko hari hashize mezi atatu atangarije aho twari mu ngoro y'agahebuzo ya Hailé Sélassié iby'uruzinduko ruhishe imitego. Sinigeze nemera ko igihugu cy'abaturanyi cyitwaza ibyago by'impunzi ngo gihungabanya umutekano w'u Rwanda.

Ngibi ibikubiye mu itangazo rigenewe abanyamakuru ryatangajwe na Ambasade y'u Rwanda:

«U Rwanda rwatewe kuva ku itariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 na bamwe mu bagize ingabo za leta ya Uganda, NRA (National Resistance Army); ubungubu izo ngabo z'amahanga zigaruriye igice cy'ubutaka bw'u Rwanda cyo mu burengerazuba bw'amajyaruguru y'igihugu.

Nubwo bimwe mu binyamakuru byo mu mahanga bitangaza indi nkuru, hari ibimenyetso byinshi byerekana ko abateye babarizwa koko mu ngabo za Uganga:

1.       Igitero cyashojwe giturutse ku butaka bwa Uganda, gishozwa n'ingabo zambaye inyenda y'ingabo za Uganda, ziri mu mamodoka ya gisirikari afite ibyapa by'igisirikari cya Uganda,  kandi na zo ubwazo ari iz'igisirikari cya Uganda, zitwaje intwaro n'amasasu bivuye mu bubiko bw'igisirikari cya Uganda, ziyobowe n'umujenerali afatanije n'abasirikari bakuru benshi bo mu ngabo za Uganda.

2.      Mu itangazo rya mbere ryasohotse bukeye bw'igitero, guverinoma ya Uganda yemeye ko abateye ari «abasirikari batorotse» igisirikari cya Uganda «bibye» ibikoresho by'igisirikari cy'icyo gihugu. Ibyo byemejwe n'itangazo ryo ku wa 3/10/1990 ryatanzwe n'uwungirije Minisitiri w'intebe wa Uganda, Nyakubahwa E. Kategaya, imbere y'inteko ishinga amategeko y'igihugu cye;

3.      Mu magambo menshi yatangarije abanyamakuru, nko ku wa gatatu itariki ya 10 Ukwakira 1990, umukuru w'igihugu cya Uganda yiyemereye ko ingabo zateye u Rwanda zavuye mu ngabo zemewe za Uganda. Nibwo yivugiye ati: "Ndashidikanya cyane ko ingabo bafite [mu Rwanda] zishobora gutsinda ingabo z'inyeshyamba mu mirwano. Bamwe muri bo [inyeshyamba] babarirwa mu ngabo zacu (NRA) z'isonga";

4.      Abateye na bo ubwabo bemera ko bagize ingabo zisanzwe za Uganda. Ikimenyimenyi, umwe mu bayobozi bakuru b'ingabo za Uganda, majoro Petero Bayingana, umuyobozi w'ishami ry'ubuvuzi mu ngabo za Uganda, yarivugiye ati: «Ntidushobora guharika intambara kubera ko abenshi muri twe batorotse mu ngabo za Uganda, ntidushobora rero gusubira muri Uganda» (Itangazo rya AFP ryo ku itariki ya 23/10/1990).

Kubera impamvu zimaze kuvugwa, ibikorwa byose mu gushakira umuti ikibazo cyo mu karere ntibigomba kwibagiza ukuri kudakuka ko igitero cyaturutse hanze y'igihugu.

Guverinoma y'u Rwanda yamaganye kenshi yivuye inyuma icyo gitero n'uko kwigarurira ubutaka bw'igihugu bigaragaza ukutubahiriza no gusuzugura bikabije amahame y'Umuryango w'Abibumbye ndetse n'aya OUA, kuko bateye umugeri amasezerano y'imibanire myiza y'abaturanyi no kubahiriza ubusugire bw'ibihugu.

Niyo mpamvu, guverinoma y'u Rwanda ikomeje kwizera ko kugarura amahoro mu Rwanda no mu karere kose byanze bikunze bigomba kubanzirizwa no gukura ingabo zateye ku butaka bw'igihugu.

Addis-Abeba, tariki ya 24 Ukwakira 1990»

Iri tangazo rya Ambasade ni inyandikomvuga yohererejwe abahagarariye ibihugu byabo n'imiryango mpuzamahanga ikorera mu murwa mukuru wa Etiyopiya. Uwo munsi nanone, ambasade y'u Rwanda i Washington yatanze itangazo risobetse kurenza iringiri, ryerekana ukwivanga kwa Perezida wa Uganda mu bibazo bireba u Rwanda ubwarwo. Bagenzi banjye benshi bo muri Afurika ndetse no mu Buraya babonye urwo rwandiko barampamagara bambwira ko ba guverinoma zabo zishyigikiye u Rwanda. Ambasaderi wa Uganda, Bwana Swaib Musoke yaje kunshaka kuri amabasade. Ambwira ko ashyigikiye ibyo nkora, ariko ko afite impungenge ko i kampala babyakira nabi. Mu by'ukuri Kampala yari yatangiye kugaragaza aho ihagaze.

Ambasaderi w'u Rwanda i Kampala, Karaveri Kanyarushoki, yahamagajwe mu ngoro y'umukuru w'igihugu yakirrwa na Perezida Yoweri Museveni ubwe. Ibiganiro bagiranye byaranzwe n'umwuka mubi. Perezida Museveni yahise yereka amabasaderi inyandikomvugo yatangajwe na ambasaderi yanjye, amubwira amagambo akurikira: «Mu gihe guverinoma yanjye ikora ibishoboka byose ngo ibafashe, ba ambasaderi banyu bihaye kuntoba mu nzarwe. Nibikomeza bityo ndakuramo akanjye karenge, ingaruka z'ibizaba nyuma ntizizambarweho.»

 

Iryo terabwoba ntiryari ibikino. Icyakora byumvikanye ko ibyari bihangayikishije ubutitsa «Perezida wa OUA» ari ubwoba bwo gucyahwa n'amahanga. Mu gihe uwahoze ari inyeshyamba yari hafi gutsinda igitego mu rwego rw'ububanyi n'amahanga yitwaje OUA, byagaragaraga ko  kwivanga mu kibazo cy'u Rwanda bishobora kubangamira icyo gikorwa, biturutse ku cyemezo ambasaderi yafashe cyo kumena ikibyimba atabanje gutegereza uburenganzira bwa guverinoma ye.  Kubera uko guteza ubwega kwa Perezida Museveni, guverinoma y'u Rwanda yarahangayitse. Kigali isaba mugenzi wanjye Karaveri Kanyarushoki gusaba imbabazi ku mugaragaro mu izina ry'u Rwanda avuguruza inyandikomvugo zatangaje na ambasade ya Addis-Abeba n'iy'i Washington. Ari byo bivuga guhanagura burundu uruhare rwa Yoweri Museveni gitero cyibasiye u Rwanda.

 

Hashize iminsi mike, maze kuva Addis-Abeba nimuriwe i Parisi, inyandiko ivuguruza ibyavuzwe na ambasade y'u Rwanda i Kampala ikwira imirwa mikuru yose y'isi inakorerwa iyamamaza rihambaye. Dore ibyari biyikubiyemo:

«Ambasade ya Repubulika y'u Rwanda irashimira Minisiteri y'Ububanyi n'Amahanga n'Akarere ya Repubulika ya Uganda. Ishingiye ku nyandiko n° XC 1149 yo ku wa 2 Ugushyingo 1990 ku byerekeye ibyatangajwe n'uwungirije ambasaderi w'u Rwanda ya Addis-Abeba na ambasade y'u Rwanda i Washington, yishimiye gutangariza ibikurikira:

Ibyatangajwe ntibikwiye kandi birababaje, kandi binyuranyije n'ibitekerezo bya guverinoma y'u Rwanda.

Guverinoma y'u Rwanda irashima kandi yishimiye uruhare rukomeye kandi rwa ngombwa Nyakubahwa Perezida Yoweri Museveni yagize, nk'umuyobozi wa OUA, mu gushaka igisubizo ikibazo kiriho binyuze mu nzira z'amahoro.

Guverinoma y'u Rwanda yiyemeje gukomeza gutsura amahoro yubahiriza imyanzuro y'afashwe mu manama ya Mwanza na Gbadolite.

Nyakubahwa Perezida w'u Rwanda yiteguye kwoherereza Perezida wa Repubulika ya Uganda intumwa yihariye igihe cyose guhera ubungubu mu gihe kiboneye parezida wa Uganda kugira ngo ahamye ibyavuzwe haruguru byerekeranye n'icyo u Rwanda ruhagazeho no gutanga ibindi bisobanuro birambuye.

Ku byerekeye amakuru yatangazwe na BBC mu gitondo cyo ku wa 3 Ugushyingo 1990 ku kiganiro cya Minisitiri w'Ububanyi n'amahanga n'ubutwererane mpuzamahanga w'u Rwanda. Dr. Casimir Bizimungu, guverinoma ya Repubulika y'u Rwanda iramagana byimazeyo ibyavuzwe na BBC bigamije guharabika ishusho nyayo y'u Rwanda no gukurura umwiryane hagati y'u Rwanda n'abaturanyi ku mpamvu zizwi gusa n'abateguye iyo gahunda. Biri n'amahire, mu kiganiro cya  Minisitiri cyumvikanye muri «Focus on Afrika» ejo nimugoroba cyakurikiwe n'abantu benshi bashobora kubihamya, yashimye ubwitange Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Uganda adahwema kugaragaza mu gushakira iyi ntambara igisubizo kinyuze mu nzira z'amahoro. Ntiyigeze na rimwe ashinja igihugu cya Uganda kuba cyarateye u Rwanda nkuko BBC ishaka kubyumvisha rubanda....»

 

Ibyakurikiye uko kwirara mu rwego rw'ububanyi n'amahanga ntibyongeye kugira igaruriro. Kuko u Rwanda rwabuze ijambo ku buryo bidasubirwaho. Bityo, Museveni aboneraho kwemeza atavuguruzwa ko mu Rwanda hari intambara hagati y'abanyarwanda ubwabo, akoreresheje urwandiko rubimuhera uburenganzira rwa guverinoma rwaje rusa n'akava imuhana imvura ihise. U Rwanda ruba rwemeye rutyo ku rutsinzwe, birarangira! Ntacyo rusabye! Kuva ubwo, igihe cyose  Minisitiri w'Ububanyi n'Amahanga w'u Rwanda agize icyo atangariza abanyamakuru, Kampala ikerekana isheja inyandiko ya leta imuvuguruza. Inaboneraho gukoresja inshuti zayo zo mu mahanga kugira ngo igaragaze ukwivuguruza n'uguhuzagurika kwateshaga agaciro guverinoma yu Rwanda. Hagati aho ku rugamba intambara iraca ibintu, naho Uganda ikomeza guhungabanyi umuturanyi wayo idakura mu ruge. Perezida Habyarimana yari abizi neza, ariko yashakaga gutwara buhoro Yoweri Museveni, yizeye kuzamwumvisha ko agomba guhagarika gutera inkunga FPR. Akaba yarumvaga ko u Rwanda rwaboneraho kwisuganya buhoro buhoro rwitegura gutsinda intambara burundu. Icyo gitekerezo cyakuruye ingorane ku buryo bidasubirwaho. Ibyakurikiyeho byose byaranzwe n'igihunga kidashira cyashegeshe ububanyi n'amahanga bw'u Rwanda kugeza muri Mata 1994.

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