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Publié par La Tribune Franco-Rwandaise

Inkuru ya HAVUGAYO MVUGAKARIHO.

Gushyingirana hagati y’ubwoko butatu bugize u Rwanda ari bwo Abatwa, Abahutu n’Abatutsi si ibya none. Nyamara iyo urebye imibanire y’ubwo bwoko mu mateka y’igihugu cyacu usanga uko gushakana hagati y’amoko byaratagiye biganisha ku bintu umuntu yakwibazaho. Ese mu by’ukuri mu Rwanda mu gihe cyahise abantu babanaga ari uko bashakanye cyangwa se hari izindi nyungu zabaga ziri inyuma y’uko gushyingirana ? Mu minsi ya vuba aha se bwo byifashe bite ? Ese ibyo gushyingirana hagati y’amoko anyuranye byaba byaratangiye ryari mu Rwanda ? Abantu babana badahuje ubwoko barebana bate ? Bumvikana bate ? Abana babakomotseho baba aba nde muri ubwo bwoko ? Ese ababana badahuje ubwoko hari icyo bibatwaye ? Abababona se bo babivugaho iki ? Babitekerezaho iki ? Ibyo ni bimwe mu bibazo ngirango mbabwire icyo mbitekerezaho muri iyi nyandiko.

Mbere yo kugira icyo mbivugaho ariko, nagira ngo mbanze nsobanure uburyo numva amagambo ndi bukoreshe kugira ngo twese tubyumve kimwe. Iyo mvuze « kubana » mba nshaka gusobanura ko abantu babiri « baba hamwe », mbega « bubatse urugo », iyo mvuze « gushyingira » mba nshatse kuvuga ko umuryango runaka wahaye umugeni undi muryango runaka n’uwo wundi ugatanga umuhungu abo bana bakarwubaka, naho iyo mvuze « gushakana » mba ngamije gusobanura igikorwa cyo kwihitiramo uwo muzabana mukabyemeranwaho mukabana biturutse ku bushake bwanyu mwembi. Ibi mbitewe n’uko mu kanya muri bwibonere ko hari abashobora « kubana » « batarashakanye » cyangwa « batarashyingiranwe » ibyo ariko si byo ngamije kuvugaho ubu.

Mu by’ukuri kubana hagati y’abantu badahuje ubwoko, badahuje iguhugu, badahuje ibara ry’uruhu biriho kandi si ibya none. Duhereye cyera tukajya na kure y’u Rwanda, abazi amateka y’Abaromani muzi ko bivugwa ko mu ntangiriro ya Roma abahungu bo muri uwo mujyi barangajwe imbere na Romulus (bavuga ko ari we washinze Roma), biraye mu bakobwa bo mu gihugu bari baturanye bitaga « Abasabini » « les Sabines » barabafata barabarongora. Ibyo byatumye i Roma haboneka urubyaro, iraturwa, iratunga, igatunganirwa.

Abasoma Bibiriya ndetse na Korowani bazi inkuru y’Umwami Salomoni wa Isiraheri n’Umwamikazi wa Saba (ari yo Etiyopiya y’ubu) bavuga ko bahuye bakabengukanwa bakagirana imishyikirano n’imibonano yaje kugera aho babyaranye. Ndetse ubu muzi ko hari abayahudi bitwa « Abafalasha » bavugwa ko bakomoka kuri urwo rukundo rwa Salomoni n’Umwamikazi wa Saba, Isiraheri ikaba yaraje kubashaka ikabasubiza mu gihugu cya bo « cy’ivuko », cyangwa cy’« abasekuruza » ba bo.

Ku byerekeye imibanire y’abadahuje ibara ry’uruhu byo simbitindaho kuko buri muntu azi nibura umuntu w’umuzungu ubana n’umwirabura ; gusa nagirango aha ntange urugero rw’umugabo witwa Henri LOPES wo muri Congo Brazzaville uvuka ku mugabo w’umuzungu n’umugore w’umwiraburakazi akaba yaravutse muri 1937. Izi ngero nazihisemo mbishaka kuko ndi bubereke ko iyo mibanire y’abo bantu batandukanye yaje gutanga ikintu cyiza cyari gikwiye kutubera urugero.

Tuje no mu Rwanda rero dusanga imibanire y’abantu badahuje ubwoko atari iya none. Ingero ni nyinshi. Ku bazi imvugo igira iti « amukuye aho umwami yakuye Busyeti » bazi ko inyuma y’iyo mvugo hari imibanire y’umutwa witwaga Busyeti n’umututsikazi (ndetse ngo wari umukobwa w’umwami).

Ku birebana no gushakana hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi sinirirwa ndondora ingero nyinshi z’Abahutu bashakanye n’Abatutsikazi cyangwa Abatutsi babana n’Abahutukazi kuko buri munyarwanda azi nibura umuryango umwe mu nshuti ze za hafi cyangwa mu bamenyi ugizwe n’abantu babana bava muri bumwe muri ubwo bwoko. Gusa ariko nagirango ntange ingero nkeya. Zimwe muri izo ngero nazihisemo kubera ko abantu bazivugwamo atari ba rubanda rusanzwe rwa giseseka. Rumwe muri zo ni urwa Mashira, umwami wa Nduga na Mibambwe, umwami w’u Rwanda bari barahanye abageni ari bo Bwiza na Nyirantorwa. Nigiye imbere mu mateka, urundi rugero natanga ndarukesha ababizi (aha ndashaka kuvuga cyane cyane abiru b’i Bwami) bemeza ko Nyiramavugo Umugabekazi w’u Rwanda yari afite nyina w’umuhutukazi. Nyiramavugo uyu mvuga ni we Kankazi nyina w’umwami Rudahigwa akaba yari umukobwa wa Mbanzabigwi ya Rwakagara rwa Gaga rya Mutezintare wa Sesonga ya Makara ya Kiramira cya Mucuzi wa Nyantabana ya Burigande bwa Ngoga ya Gihinira cya Ndiga ya GAHUTU ka Serwega rwa MUTUTSI akaba umukobwa w’Abega. Murabona ko no muri iki gisekuru harimo amoko yombi.

Twongeye kwigira imbere mu mateka yacu ya vuba, tukareba uburyo imishakanire y’abanyarwanda yari iteye dusanga abahutu n’abatutsi baragiye bahana abageni kenshi. Tutiriwe tujya kure tugahera nko ku bayobozi b’abahutu ba Repuburika ya mbere turasanga abenshi muri bo bari batunze abagore b’abatutsikazi. Kuba rero abo Bahutu bizwi ko baharaniye kuvanaho ingoma ya cyami n’ubutegetsi bwa yo bushigiye ku ngengabitekerezo y’uko Abatutsi bagomba gutegeka no gutsikamira Abahutu ari bo bafashe iya mbere bagashaka abagore b’Abatutsikazi ni ibyo gutekerezaho cyane tukareba icyo twabikuramo kitwubaka. Mu kanya ndabigarukaho.

Nkivuga ariko ku mibanire y’abantu baba batsikamira abandi n’ababa batsikamiwe nagirango ngaruke kuri rwa rugero rwa Henri Lopes. Uyu mugabo yavutse ku itariki ya 12 nzeri 1937 avukira i Kinshasa (icyo gihe yitwaga Léopoldville). Se yari umuzungu w’umubiligi wakoranaga n’ubutegetsi bw’ubukoloni, nyina akaba umwiraburakazi wo muri Congo Brazzaville. Mu buzima bwe, uwo mugabo agaragaza ingorane yagiye ahura nazo biturutse ku ibara ry’uruhu rwe. Agira ati : « nkiri muri Afurika niga mu mashuri abanza numvaga ndi nk’umuzungu udafite umwanya n’agaciro nk’ak’abandi bazungu buzuye ;

ariko ngeze mu Bufaransa ngiye kwiga amashuri yisumbuye na Kaminuza nasanze ndi umwirabura kuko mu maso y’abazungu sinari nakwiye kuvuga ko hari aho mpuriye n’abazungu » Uwo mugabo akomeza agira ati : « uko guhera hagati y’amabara yombi nkabura aho mbarizwa byarambazaga ariko byanteye kwibaza ku buzima bwanjye, nibaza uwo ndi we n’icyo ndicyo mu by’ukuri, bituma mfata icyemezo cyo kwishimira no kugira ishema ry’uwo ndi we ».

Iyo rero urebye imibereho y’uwo mugabo, usanga uko kutagira aho abarizwa mu mabara y’ababyeyi be bitaramuheranye ngo agire ipfunwe cyangwa isoni ry’uwo ari we ; ahubwo byamubereye imbarutso yo kwiga abishyizeho umwete, ariga araminuza yigisha muri za kaminuza zo mu Bufaransa nka La Sorbonne, agira uruhare rugaragara mu guharanira ko umunyafurika yabohorwa ingoyi ya gikoroni, akaba ari mu baharaniye ubwigenge bw’igihugu cye n’Afurika muri rusange. Mu gihugu cye, Henri LOPES yayoboye za Ministeri nyinshi kandi zinyuranye ndetse yanabaye Minisitiri w’intebe wa Congo Brazzaville. Yabaye Umuyobozi wungirije wa UNESCO ushinzwe umuco n’ububanyi n’amahanga kuva muri 1982 kugera muri 1998 amakuru ye ya nyuma mperuka yari ahagarariye igihugu cye mu Bufaransa.

Uretse n’iyo myanya ya politiki ku rwego rw’igihugu cye ndetse no ku rwego rw’isi uyu mugabo ni umwanditsi ukomeye kandi uzwi ku rwego rw’igihugu cye, urwa Afurika ndetse n’urw’isi. N’ikimenyimenyi yagiye yegukana ibihembo bihanitse mu bijyanye n’ubuhanzi bushingiye ku bwanditsi.

Icyatumye ntanga urugero rw’uyu mugabo ni uko yavutse mu gihe cya gikoronize. Icyo gihe abazungu bumvaga ko ari bo bazi ubwenge, bafite ubushobozi n’ubumenyi akaba ari na bo bagombaga gutegeka abirabura. Uwo mugabo rero njye anyereka ishusho y’ubwuzuzanye bw’ibintu cyangwa bw’abantu basa n’abadafite icyo bahuriyeho. Biragaragara ko nk’uko abyivugira, mu ntangiriro y’ubuzima bwe yabanje kubura aho ahagaze yibaza ibibazo byinshi kuri we ubwe, atazi uwo ariwe. Nyamara uko kutiyumvamo ubwirabura bwuzuye cyangwa ubuzungu bwuzuye ntibyamuheranye ngo abure umwanya mu buzima bwe ku giti cye no mu buzima bw’igihugu cye ndetse n’ubw’isi yose muri rusange. Ahubwo yafashe uko kuntu ateye, atasabye kandi atanihaye aguhindura isoko yavomyemo imbaraga zatumye agera kuri byinshi harimo ibyo bike cyane nababwiye hejuru aha kuko rwose bitanyoroheye kurondora ibyo yakoze ngo mbirangize muri iyi mirongo mike mfite.

Tugarutse rero ku bireba abanyarwanda, nk’uko nabivuze kandi bikaba bizwi, ubwoko bwacu uko ari butatu buhana abageni kuva cyera. Hejuru natanze ingero za bamwe mu bazwi mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Ariko uko guhana abageni iyo ubirebye usanga akenshi hari uburyo umuntu yabibona. Reka dufate nk’abategetsi ba Répuburika ya mbere nka Kayibanda, Makuza n’abandi…

Aha ndibanda gusa kuri Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda kuko mbona nta mwanya uruta uwonguwo mu kuba uhagarariye rubanda. Uyu mugabo ntawe uyobewe uruhare yagize mu kuba kw'isonga mu gushinga Repubulika y'u Rwanda afatanyije n’abandi barwanashyaka mu kuvanaho ingoma ya cyami iyobowe n’Abatutsi yari imaze imyaka amagana n'amagana iryamira Abahutu. Kuba yari afite umugore w’umututsikazi njye mfite uko mbibona

Ariko mbere yo kubabwira uburyo mbona uko kubana kwa Grégoire Kayibanda na Vérdiane Mukagatare n’isomo nkuramo, reka tubanze turebere hamwe uburyo ugushakana hagati y’abanyarwanda muri rusange, hamwe no gushyingiranwa no gushakana hagati y’Abatutsi n’Abahutu ku buryo bw’umwihariko bigenda, noneho mbabwire uko njye ku giti cyanjye mbona bigenda. Uwaba afite ukundi abibona na we yazabitugezaho.

Mu by’ukuri iyo ndebye iyo mibanire mvuze haruguru, nsanga nayigabanyamo ibice nka bitatu :

1) Igice cya mbere ni icy’abantu babana cyangwa babanaga hadashingiwe mbere na mbere ku bushake bwabo. Aha tuzi ko mu muco wacu wa cyera iyo umuntu yabaga afite umusore ugeze mu kigero cyo kurushinga yashakishaga umuryango ufite umukobwa ukwiye kubaka urugo akamumusabira bakamumuha akamurongora. Tuzi kandi ko iyo byabaga ngombwa habagaho ibyo bitaga « kurangisha » no « kuranga » aha mwibuke ya mvugo yagiraga iti : « nta bukwe butagira umuranga » cyangwa ngo « umukobwa wabuze umuranga yaheze mwa nyina ». Muri make uwo mubyeyi yumvikanaga na se w’uwo mukobwa akamusaba umugeni, agakwa, nyuma bakazamuhekera umugeni, akaza akabana n’umugabo, akubaka, akabyara, urugo rugatunga rugatunganirwa n’ubwo yabaga ahuye n’uwo musore bwa mbere ari uko bagiye « kumara amavuta ». Muri iyo mishakanire biragaragara ko nta ruhare rugaragara ababana babaga babigizemo ndetse muzi ko hari n’umugani najyaga numva mu gitaramo uvuga ibya « Nyamutegerakazazejo » wakoye inda agakwerera indi. Nizere ko muri iyi minsi ubu buryo bwo kurwubaka butakiri mu Rwanda.

2) Igice cya kabiri kigizwe n’ababana babishingiye ku nyungu no ku mibare. Aha natanga nk’urugero rw’umuntu wabaga atarize amashuri menshi ariko wenda akaba afite amafaranga warebaga nk’umukobwa urangije amashuri ufite impamyabumenyi n’akazi akabara agasanga abanye n’uwo mukobwa umutungo we wakwiyongera kuko bombi babaga binjiza amafaranga ; uwo mukobwa na we akabara ati « ndasiga ibi nsanga ibihe » akisangira uwo munyamafaranga kuko aba cyangwa yabaga yizeye ko azabaho nta cyo abuze.

Aha natanze urugero rw’amafaranga ariko hari n’ibindi bijya cyangwa byajyaga bigenderwaho mu gushyingirana, nk’ubushobozi n’ububasha bishingiye ku myanya ya poritiki, kuba uvuka mu muryango runaka ukomeye ugashaka ko uwo muryango ushyingirana n’undi ukomeye, hakurikijwe bya bindi bavuga mu Kinyarwanda ngo « habana abakize » kandi ngo « amaboko atareshya ntaramukanya » ; n’ibindi…Yewe nkiri kuri ibyo by’ibikomerezwa, hari n’ubwo nk’umugabo ukomeye yakinishaga umwari akaba amuteye inda, noneho mu gushaka kubihishira agashaka umusore mu bo ategeka cyangwa afiteho ububasha, akamuha uwo mukobwa akamurongora, akazitwa ko ari we se w’uwo mwana, noneho mu kumwitura akamwemerera kuzamufasha muri byinshi bumvikanagaho. Uko biri kose, izi ngo ntiziba zishingiye mbere na mbere ku rukundo n’ubushake bw’ababa babana n’ubwo mu ngo nzi zubatswe muri ubwo buryo ababana bagera aho bagasa n’abakundana. Ibyo ari byose iyo bamaze kumenyana no kumenyerana akenshi babana neza mu bwuhabane n’ubwuzuzanye n’iyo basenye basenya nk’abandi, kandi nta mibare nigeze nkora ngo menye niba babana neza cyangwa nabi kurusha ababanye biturutse ku bushake bushingiye ku rukundo gusa.

3) Igice cya gatatu ari nacyo nizera kandi nifuza ko cyaba kigizwe n’abenshi mu babana, ni icy’abarushinga biturutse ku rukundo baba bifitaniye. Aba ntibagira ikibitambika imbere ngo kibangamire imibanire ya bo cyaba ikibazo cy’ubwoko, cyaba icy’umuryango umwe akomokamo cyangwa icy’umutungo w’uwo bashakanye cyangwa umuryango baba bafite cyangwa badafite. Iyo bakundana bakiyemeza kubana, barabana kandi bakabana neza. Emwe n’iyo bahuye n’ibibazo birenze ubwenge babyikuramo neza buri gihe, kandi n’iyo baba batagishobokanye bagatandukana babikora nta n’umwe wicuza ngo abe yagira ati : « n’ubundi twabanye ntabishaka » ; muri make usanga babanye mu munezero uranga urugo rushingiye ku rukundo rw’ukuri.

No mu mibanire y’abahutu n’abatutsi, usanga ibyo byiciro uko ari bitatu bibonekamo. Reka ntange ingero : Tugarutse nko kuri ya mishyingiranire ya Mibambwe na Mashira nababwiye haruguru dusanga Mibambwe ajya gushyingira Mashira umukobwa we Nyampundu abandi bita Nyirantorwa yari agamije « gucengera » ubwami bwa Mashira kugirango azabone uko abwigarurira amaze kumwica ; kandi ni ko byaje kugenda. Koko rero nk’uko amateka abitubwira

Mashira yari afite ingabo zikomeye zari zarananiye Mibambwe I Sekarongoro n’ingabo ze. Mashira rero amaze kunanirana, Mibambwe yazibukiriye iby’imirwano aba abishyize iruhande, maze ingoma y’Ababanda irasugira. Ni bwo rero Mibambwe yigiriye imigambi yo kugirana imimaro (amasezerano yo kutarwana) na Mashira; biremezwa Mashira aba umwami wa Nduga. Nyuma yaho imishyikirano yarakomeye, ndetse haziraho no gushyingirana nk’uko nabivuze haruguru, babana nk’incuti kugera n’aho Mibambwe yaje guhungira kwa Mashira nyuma yo gutsindwa mu gitero cya kabiri cy'Abanyoro ni uko Umwami Mashira aramwakira aramuhisha akira atyo Abanyoro. Ibyo ariko ntibyabujije Mibambwe gukomeza umugambi we mubisha kuko yaje gushyirwa yivuganye Mashira.

Nyamara Mashira we mu gushyingira kwa Mibambwe, yari yizeye ko arimo gukomeza imibanire myiza n’uwo mwami n’ingoma ye, kugira ngo ibihugu bya bo bibane neza kurushaho muri uko kuvanga amaraso ; we yumvaga ko ari nk’igihango agiranye na bo. Uko kwirara hamwe n'icyizere cyaje kuraza amasinde bya Mashira ku ruhande rumwe, uburyarya n'indimi ebyiri bya Mibambwe kurundi ruhande nibyo nyirabayazana ry'iyicwa ry'umwami Mashira. Nyamara mu by'ukuri Mashira ntiyari abuze ingabo zikomeye kandi nyinshi, ariko we yahugiye mu byo kubana neza no gushyingirana, mu gihe Mibambwe we yari agamije kumurimbura hakurikijwe politiki ye mbi, iyi idatinya kwica amasezerano, umubano no gutsemba isano. Aha niho nsanga kuriya kubana kw’abantu batabifitemo uruhare byari bikwiye kurangirana na bariya babikoze ; twe tukareba kure, tugamije imibanire myiza hagati y’amoko yacu dore ko noneho turi mu gihugu kimwe.

Ku birebana na kiriya gice cya kabiri cy’ababana hagamijwe inyungu cyo singitindaho kuko numva kitatuzamura na gato cyane cyane ko ntashaka guteza intugunda mu mitwe y’abasoma ibi. Ariko nagirango ntange agatekerezo gato gusa ku birebana n’abahutu bagiye babana n’abo badahuje ubwoko mu Rwanda. Aha Ndatekereza abantu bubatse ingo muri za 1960 u Rwanda rukibona ubwigenge kugera muri za 1970. Muri icyo gihe abahutu bari bamaze kwiga ari benshi kandi bagiye barushaho kwiyongera bitewe n’ihinduka ry’ubutegetsi ryari ririmo kuba ryabemereraga na bo kwiga amashuri yisumbuye ndetse na za kaminuza. Ni uko bamwe baje kuba abarimu, abandi bakaba abakarani (secrétaires), abandi bagakora mu nzego zinyuranye z’igihugu ari abafongisiyoneri (fonctionnaires) abandi ari abasisista banyuranye.

Aha mu rwego rw’urwenya mwibuke ya ndirimbo yitwa Adela Mukasine ya Orukesitere (orchestre) Umubano ivuga uburyo Mukasine uwo yaje gusendwa kubera ubujiji bwe ndetse n’amashuri make yari afite ataranatumye amenya ko ari we barimo kuvuga igihe agira ati: “abasisita bateranye, urufaransa badidibuza, naho ntazi ko ari njye bavuga, burya kutiga biragatsindwa” abazi Adela uwo n’umugabo we bambwiye ko baba bakomoka mu bwoko bw’ubuhutu n’ubututsi.

Abo Bahutu rero bakimara kurangiza amashuri batangiye akazi nuko bibona bari mu rwego rwo hejuru noneho babura abahutukazi bahuje urwego ngo babarongore; kandi tuzi ko mu kinyarwanda, nk’uko nabibabwiye kare, bavuga ngo « amaboko atareshya ntaramukanya ». Ni muri urwo rwego rero bahitagamo kurongora abatutsikazi batitaye ku mashuri ya bo kuko mu myumvire y’icyo gihe bagisohoka mu ngoma ya cyami ntibyari byoroshye ko abahutu bumva ko bareshya n’abatutsi; bumvaga ko umuhutu wize areshya n’umututsikazi utarize na make cyangwa wize make kuri we. Gusa ikigaragara kandi nshima ni uko abenshi muri abo bagore babanaga n’abo bahutu bize (mpereye ku bo nzi ku giti cya njye babanye muri ubwo buryo), babubahaga bakababera abagore b’umutima w’urugo; ingo za bo zigakomera, zikegendwa, zigatunga, zigatunganirwa.

Aha ariko nagitango ngaruke gato kuri rwa rugero rw’abategetsi bavanye u Rwanda ku ngoyi ya gihake. Njye ntekereza ko uretse n’icyo cyo kumva ko umugore wari ubakwiriye yari umututsikazi, bari banafite mu mutwe wa bo ko byari ngombwa ko ibyo by’amoko bitari bikwiye gukomeza gutanya abanyarwanda; ko ahubwo buri wese yari akwiye gushyira hamwe na buri wundi; Abatutsi bagashakana n’Abahutukazi, Abahutu bagashakana n’Abatutsikazi, ndetse n'Abatwa bagashakana nayo moko yandi bityo u Rwanda rugaturwa n’abantu bahuje ubwoko kandi bumvikana, ibintu byo guhora bahanganye bikavaho; abanyarwanda, baba Abahutu baba Abatutsi tutibagiwe n'Abatwa, bakabana mu bwumvikane, n’ubumwe buhamye bushingiye ndetse no ku kuvanga amaraso aho guhora bavushanya amaraso.

Reka tube ducumbikiye aha tuzakomeza mu numero yacu itaha.

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